The purpose of marriage is clearly defined in the Quran.
Two brief and meaningful verses are self-explanatory, ‘’ He created for you mates from among yourselves that you may dwell in tranquility with them and He has put love and mercy between your (hearts)’’ (30:21). And, ‘’ it is He who made his mate of like nature, in order that he might dwell with her (in love).’’ (7:189)
The purpose, therefore, is to provide for a life of companionship between two person of like nature.
There is a general consensus among all schools of Islamic jurisprudence that marriage in Islam is a civil contract with spiritual and religious connotations.
There are many injunctions in the Quran directing Muslim to marry if they can afford to maintain a family. It is also the Sunnah of the (Prophet).
As such, the practice of a man and a woman living together without a marriage contract is not permitted by the Quran, as this arrangement does not provide protection of legal rights.
A few Ahadith on the right of the husband :
• Rasulullah Sallallahu Alayhi Wasallam said : “ A woman who performs her five daily Salaah, observes fasting in the month of Ramadhaan, preserves her honour (remains chaste) and obeys her husband, may enter Jannah from which ever door she wishes.” (Mishkaat page 281)
• Rasulullah Sallallahu Alayhi Wasallam said : “ A woman who dies whilst her husband is pleased with her will enter Jannah.” (Tirmizi)
• Rasulullah Sallallahu Alayhi Wasallam said : “ If I had to command anyone to prostrate before anyone than Allah, I would have commanded the wife to prostrate before her husband. If the husband orders his wife to carry a stone from one mountain to the other and from there to the third mountain, she should do accordingly.” (Mishkaat page 281)
• Rasulullah Sallallahu Alayhi Wasallam said : “ If a man summons his wife to attend to his personal needs, she should ensure she attends to him even if she is at stove.” In other words, regardless of the importance of her work, she should go and attend to him.
• Rasulullah Sallallahu Alayhi Wasallam said : “ There are three people whose Salaah is not accepted nor are any of their good deeds approved of; one is a slave who has absconded from his master, the second person is a woman whose husband is displeased with her and the third person is a perpetual drunkard.”
• Rasulullah Sallallahu Alayhi Wasallam was once asked : “ O Rasul of Allah! Who is a good wife? He replied: “ A woman who pleases her husband when he looks towards her, she obeys him when he commands her and she does not do anything, either in regards to his life or property , which is displeasing to him.”
A few Ahadith on the right of the Wife :
• To confront with exceptional character and to treat her with kindness.
• To endure patiently, albeit with moderation, all her excesses and harassment.
• To be moderate in one’s ghairat. In other words don’t become suspicious of her nor remain totally ignorant.
• To be moderate in spending upon her; avoid being niggardly nor permit her to be extravagant.
• To learn and teach her the Masaail (proposition) of Haidh (and other Masaail exclusively related to women) and to emphasis the institution of Salaah and other tenets of Deen and to prevent her from Bid’aat (innovations) and religious prohibitions.
• To maintain equality between the wives.
• To provide her with her house sufficient enough to attend to her needs.
• To allow her to meet her close relatives such as her parents, father’s brothers father’s sister her own brothers and sisters etc.
• To desist from divorcing her unnecessarily.
• Don’t curse her.
• Both spouses have numerous rights upon one another. We have written down few of them.